The genus is restricted in its habitat to the western parts of the Palaearctic region and represented by four species only: the spotted salamander, S.
Maculosa, the well-known black and yellow creature inhabiting Central and Southern Europe, North-West Africa and SouthWestern Asia; the black salamander, S.
In fact, among the remaining land vertebrates, only the black salamander (Salamandra atra) is exclusively alpine.
In the remarkable salamander Autodax, the teeth in the jaws are compressed, sharp-edged, lancet shaped.
Many cases are known in which the young batrachian enters the world in the perfect condition, as in the black salamander of the Alps (Salamandra atra), the cave salamander (Spelerpes fuscus), the caecilian Typhlonectes, and a number of frogs, such as Pipa, Rhinoderma, Hylodes, some Nototrema, Rana opisthodon, &c. A fairly complete bibliographical index to these cases and the most remarkable instances of parental care in tailless batrachians will be found in the interesting articles by Lilian V.