The growth and development of the Balkan nations have, to a great extent, been retarded by the international jealousies arising from the Eastern Question.
Coal is mined in the valley of the Zsil, but the abundance of timber has retarded its exploitation.
At the same time, the epoch of maximum or minimum was retarded, about 4 hours at 4 in., and nearly 12 hours at io in., where the maximum temperature was reached between 1 and 2 A.M.
Thus a shoot will grow more vigorously whilst waving in the air than when nailed close to the wall; consequently a weak shoot should be left free, whilst its stronger antagonist should be restrained; and a luxuriant shoot may be retarded for some time by having its tender extremity pinched off to allow a weaker shoot to overtake it.
Forcing is the accelerating, by special treatment, of the growth of certain plants, which are required to be had in leaf, in flower or in fruit before their natural season, - as, for instance, the leaves of mint at Eastertide or the leafstalks of sea-kale and rhubarb at Christmas, the flowers of summer in the depth of winter, or some of the choicest fruits perfected so much before their normal period as to complete, with the retarded crops of winter, the circle of the seasons.