He was bitterly attacked by Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) in the senate on the ist of September for not being present there, and on the next day replied in his First Philippic. He then left Rome and devoted himself to the completion of the de Qfficiis, and to the composition of his famous Second Philippic, which was never delivered, but was circulated, at first privately, after Antony's departure from Rome to Cisalpine Gaul on the 28th of November.
On the 2 ist, a few moments after the estates had assembled, the king in full regalia appeared, and taking his seat on the throne, delivered that famous philippic, one of the masterpieces of Swedish oratory, in which he reproached the estates for their unpatriotic venality and licence in the past.
"No stronger proof," says Mark Pattison, "can be given of the inpressions produced by this powerful philippic, dedicated to the defamation of an individual, than that it has been the source from which the biography of Scaliger, as it now stands in our biographical collections, has mainly flowed."
The First Philippic of Demosthenes was spoken in 35 1 B.C. The Third Philippic - the latest of the extant political speeches - was spoken in 341 B.C. Between these he delivered eight political orations, of which seven are directly concerned with Philip. The whole series falls into two great divisions.
The First Philippic, spoken early in 351 B.C., was no sudden note of alarm drawing attention to an unnoticed peril.