Physical examination and routine x rays may yield enough evidence to diagnose benign bone tumors, but removal of tumor tissue for microscopic analysis (biopsy) is the only sure way to rule out malignancy.
Surgery done to move the testis into the scrotum does not reduce the likelihood of malignancy but allows accessibility of the testes to screen for masses which will allow early treatment.
Normocytic anemia may be caused by decreased production (e.g. malignancy and other causes of bone marrow failure), increased destruction (hemolytic anemia), or blood loss.
Adults with dermatomyositis over the age of 50 have a 15 percent risk of developing cancer, whereas juvenile dermatomyositis is rarely associated with malignancy.
A secondary malignancy may develop from the one being treated, and that second cancer may need additional chemotherapy or other treatment.