In a large number of Diptera an incision in the posterior margin of the wing, near the base, marks off a small lobe, the posterior lobe or alula, while connected with this but situated on the thorax itself there is a pair of membranous scales, or squamae, which when present serve to conceal the halteres.
The latex is usually obtained from the bark or stem by making an incision reaching almost to the wood when the milky fluid flows more or less readily from the laticiferous vessels.
Instead of the axe or large knives which frequently inflicted serious damage to the trees, special small knives and prickers are now employed so constructed as to avoid injury to the tree through making a larger incision than is necessary, and without penetrating into the wood below the laticiferous layer.
The caoutchouc is collected in the following manner: about eight oblique cuts are made all round the trunk, but only through the bark, and a tin cup is fastened at the bottom of each incision by means of a piece of soft clay.
The bases of the columns are either reeded or decorated with a plait-pattern; the capital has the broad channel between the volutes subdivided by a carefully-profiled incision; and the top of the shafts is ornamented by a broad band of palmette or honeysuckle pattern.