In ethics, he is a hard determinist and hedonist, though not without qualifications (man's boundless desire for " gain and glory ") and peculiarities.
On ethics, Locke says very little, although that little is hedonist and determinist.
- dwells so much upon the rewards of goodness, as bribes (we must almost say) to rational self-love, that some have called Butler himself an ethical hedonist; though his sermon on the " Love of God " ought surely to free him from that charge.
When Otto Ritschl interprets values hedonistically - recoiling from Hegel's idealism the whole way to empiricism - he brings again to our minds the doubt whether hedonist ethics can serve as a foundation for any religious belief.
A cosmopolitan on principle, and a convinced disbeliever in the ethics of his day, he comes very near to modern empiricism and especially to the modern Hedonist school.