The leaves are used as fodder in northern latitudes.
The young shoots are also given to oxen in the long winters of those northern latitudes, when other green fodder is hard to obtain.
Besides the use of the straw when cut up and mixed with other food for fodder, the oat grain constitutes an important food for both man and beast.
His highest duty to fodder and water his horses!
The measures by which the government of India chiefly endeavours to reduce the liability of the country to famine are the promotion of railways; the extension of canal and well irrigation; the reclamation of waste lands, with the establishment of fuel and fodder reserves; the introduction of agricultural improvements; the multiplication of industries; emigration; and finally the improvement where necessary of the revenue and rent systems. In times of famine the function of the railways in distributing the grain is just as important as the function of the irrigation-canals in increasing the amount grown.