Three main forms of human sacrifice existed in this area: (I) the scapegoat; (2) the messenger; and (3) the expiation, but combinations were not infrequent.
By way of expiation for their crime the Danaides were condemned to the endless task of filling with water a vessel which had no bottom.
This conception of the pilgrimage, as a means of expiation or a source of pardon for wrong, was foreign to the ancient Church.
The essential feature of the piaculum is that it is an expiation for wrong-doing, and the victim is often human.
OSCILLA, a word applied in Latin usage to small figures, most commonly masks or faces, which were hung up as offerings to various deities, either for propitiation or expiation, and in connexion with festivals and other ceremonies.