The exiles: as patriot and ethical teacher he deplored alike the political blindness of the Jerusalem government (King Zedekiah revolted in 588) and the immorality and religious superficiality and apostasy of the people.
Against all "tonsured" persons, supra); (d) Offences in regard to holy places - " brawling " and such like; (e) Heresy, schism, apostasy, witchcraft.
In the cases of heresy, apostasy and sorcery, the spiritual courts sought the aid of the secular jurisdiction to superadd the punishment of death.
In the persecuting activity that ensued the Dominicans, "the Dogs of the Lord" (Domini canes), took the lead., Commissaries of the Holy Office were sent into different provinces, and ministers of the faith were established in the various cities to take cognisance of the crimes of heresy, apostasy, sorcery, sodomy and polygamy, these three last being considered to be implicit heresy.
The elder Gibbon heard with indignant surprise of this act of juvenile apostasy, and, indiscreetly giving vent to his wrath, precipitated the expulsion of his son from Oxford, a punishment which the culprit, in after years at least, found no cause to deplore.