They are occasionally adulterated with the leaves of Inula Conyza, ploughman's spikenard, which may be distinguished by their greater roughness, their less divided margins, and their odour when rubbed; also with the leaves of Symphytum officinale, comfrey, and of Verbascum Thapsus, great mullein, which unlike those of the foxglove have woolly upper and under surfaces.
The rhizome of Acorus Calamus is sometimes adulterated with that of Iris Pseudacorus, which, however, is distinguishable by its lack of odour, a stringent taste and dark colour.
Amongst its chief recommendations were those relating to amendments in the Agricultural Holdings Acts, and to tithe rentcharge, railway rates, damage by game, sale of adulterated products, and sale of imported goods (meat, for example) as home produce.
One species was a liquid, which was apt to be adulterated; but when pure it had the property of blackening when added to pomegranate juice.
Thus in Nuremberg a regular saffron inspection was held, and in the 15th century we read of men being burned in the market-place along with their adulterated saffron, while on another occasion three persons convicted of the same crime were buried alive.